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In Salesforce we have different domain names like ap1, cs1, na1.......?

In Salesforce we have different domain names like
Why they need to provide different URL ? Any special purpose for each domain or Is there any Security reasons?

Thanks in advance my Friends
These domains denote two main things 
  1. Instance type, i.e. Production or Sandbox Instance
  2. Instance Region i.e. North America, EMEA or APAC
All domains starting with "cs" denotes that this is a sandbox instance. E.g. "cs1", "cs2" ...... "cs30"
All other domains denote that you are on Production Instance of a specific region. "na" will denote that you are in "North America" region, "eu" will denote that your production instance is in "EMEA" region and "ap" will denote that your instance is in "APAC" region.

Hope this clarifies.