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How Does Salesforce Process Process Builder Scheduled Actions

We have a process builder (on Case object) in a flow of sending reminder emails as in below functional flow.
Criteria met > Update a field on Case(scheduled action) > Case trigger checks for field update and send reminder email.

Recipient will be an person account which is a grand parent object to Case. The personEmail of the person account is being captured, composed the email and send in the trigger.

My question is does Salesforce keep a runtime reference of entire scheduled action flow(up-to trigger and sending email) until it get fired? Or should Salesforce execute the trigger at the real execution time of the scheduled action?

Reason why asking is we observed that even if we change the person account lookup before scheduled action time met, trigger still sends the reminder email to the previous person account personEmail. This sounds like Salesforce keep a runtime reference of entire process of scheduled action.

Appreciate any comments/ confirmation on this.
If you change the field value before the scheduled action, process builder will consider the new value similar to workflows. Is it possible to send the reminder from the builder itself?
Changing the value will reevaluate the process and would work. What I need to confirm is does Salesforce keep a runtime reference of classes as well at the process trigerring time. Becasuse if it consider and execute the class at actual scheduled action firing time, it should take capture the new recipient.

Sending reminder via process builder is not an option as we need to capture the email under Case objects. If we use email alerts from process builder we can't achieve that.